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پروژه زبان تخصصی برق Hadi Hassani 1395/07/17 دسته بندی : برق و الکترونیک و مخابرات 0
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Theory of Magnetism
 To understand the magnetic behavior of materials, it is necessary to take a microscopic view of matter. A suitable starting point is the composition of the atom, which Bohr described as consisting of a heavy nucleus and a number of electrons moving around the nucleus in specific orbits. Closer investigation reveals that the atom of any substance experiences a torque when placed in a magnetic field; this is called a magnetic moment. The resultant magnetic moment of an atom depends upon three factors-the positive charge of the nucleus spinning on its axis, the negative charge of the electron spinning on its axis, and the effect of the electrons moving in their orbits. The magnetic moment of the spin and orbital motions of the electron far exceeds that of the spinning proton. However, this magnetic moment can be affected by the presence of an adjacent atom. Accordingly, if two hydrogen atoms are combined to form a hydrogen molecule, it is found that the electron spins, the proton spins, and the orbital motions of the electrons of each atom oppose each other so that a resultant magnetic moment of zero should be expected. Although this is almost the case, experiment reveals that the relative permeability of hydrogen is not equal to 1 but rather is very slightly less than unity. In other words, the molecular reaction is such that when hydrogen is the medium there is a slight decrease in the magnetic field compared with free space. This behavior occurs because there is a precessional motion of all rotating charges about the field direction, and the effect of this precession is to set up a field opposed to the applied field regardless of the direction of spin or orbital motion. Materials in which this behavior manifests itself are called diamagnetic for obvious reasons. Besides hydrogen, other materials possessing this characteristic are silver and copper


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